Essay on Capital Punishment in Easy Words for Students & Children of All Classes

Imagine a world where some people believe that the most serious crimes should be punished by losing a person’s life. This is what we call capital punishment or the death penalty. It’s a topic that has sparked many debates and discussions. 

This essay will explore what capital punishment is, why it exists, and the arguments for and against it. So, get ready to learn more about this important and sometimes controversial issue that affects the lives of people around the world.

The History of Capital Punishment

 The History of Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment, also known as the death penalty, has a long history. People have used it for thousands of years to punish serious crimes. In the olden days, it was common to use methods like hanging, beheading, or even public executions. Ancient civilisations, like the Romans and Egyptians, practised it.

The death penalty has existed in the United States since colonial times. But how it’s carried out has changed over the years. Today, in many places, it’s done by lethal injection. The reasons for using Capital Punishment have varied. Some believed it was a way to deter people from committing crimes, while others thought it was a form of revenge or justice.

However, many countries have stopped using the death penalty, and there are debates about whether it’s fair or effective. So, the history of Capital Punishment is long and complex, filled with different ideas and beliefs about right and wrong.

Arguments in Favor of Capital Punishment

Arguments in Favor of Capital Punishment

Some people support Capital Punishment, which means giving the death penalty to serious criminals, for a few reasons.

  1. Punishing the Worst Crimes: Some people say that for the most terrible crimes like murder, using Capital Punishment is like saying, “This is not okay.” They think giving the death penalty to those who commit these awful acts is fair because it shows that society won’t tolerate such behaviour. It’s saying, “You did something wrong, and there are serious consequences.”
  1. Deterrence: Some support Capital Punishment because they believe it can make people think twice about doing something bad. Imagine knowing that you might face the death penalty if you committed a severe crime. That thought might stop some people from doing it because they’d be too scared of the punishment.
  1. Closure for Victims’ Families: When a person loses a loved one to a terrible crime like murder, it can be incredibly painful. Supporters of Capital Punishment think that knowing the person who did it won’t harm anyone else can provide a sense of closure and justice to the victims’ families. It’s like saying, “We’re ensuring this person can’t hurt anyone else.”
  1. Cost Savings: Some argue that using Capital Punishment can save money. Keeping a criminal in prison for life can be expensive because it involves food, healthcare, and security costs for many years. Supporters say the death penalty might be cheaper in the long run because it avoids these ongoing expenses.

These are why some people think Capital Punishment is a good idea. However, it’s essential to remember that many others strongly oppose it, believing it’s morally wrong or doesn’t effectively prevent crime. The topic of Capital Punishment is complex and has passionate arguments on both sides.

Arguments Against Capital Punishment

 Arguments Against Capital Punishment

Certainly, here are some arguments against Capital Punishment, or the death penalty:

  • Mistakes can happen: One of the biggest concerns is that innocent people might be executed by mistake. Once a person is put to death, there’s no way to undo it, and if there’s even a small chance of error in the legal system, it’s seen as too risky.
  • Doesn’t deter crime: Some argue that the death penalty doesn’t deter people from committing serious crimes. They say that the threat of death doesn’t stop criminals, as they might not think about the consequences when they commit these acts.
  • Morally wrong: Many believe taking another person’s life, even as punishment, is morally wrong. They argue that it goes against the idea that all life is valuable and that society should not resort to killing as a form of justice.
  • Unequal application: Critics argue that the death penalty is not applied fairly and equally. Race, wealth, and location can affect who receives the death penalty, leading to inequality and bias in the legal system.
  • No chance for redemption: Some say that even those who commit serious crimes should have a chance to reform or make amends for their actions. Capital Punishment denies them this opportunity and ends any chance of rehabilitation.

These arguments highlight concerns about the death penalty’s fairness, effectiveness, and ethical implications, leading many to advocate for its abolition in various countries.

The Global Perspective on Capital Punishment

The Global Perspective on Capital Punishment

Around the world, people have different views on Capital Punishment, also known as the death penalty. Some countries use it for severe crimes, while others have stopped or never used it.

Many European countries, for example, don’t use the death penalty anymore because they believe it’s wrong and inhumane. They think there are better ways to punish criminals and keep society safe.

However, Capital Punishment is still in use in places like the United States and parts of Asia. People there have different opinions. Some believe it’s necessary for very bad crimes, while others think it should be stopped because it can be unfair or make mistakes. So, the global perspective on Capital Punishment varies, and it’s a topic that continues to be debated worldwide.

Capital Punishment in the United States

 Capital Punishment in the United States

In the United States, Capital Punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a legal punishment for serious crimes like murder. However, it’s a topic of debate. Some states use it, while others don’t.

Here’s how it works: When someone is convicted of a crime that’s eligible for the death penalty, they go through a series of legal steps, including trials and appeals, to make sure they’re guilty. If everything checks out, the person can be sentenced to death.

However, many people in the U.S. have concerns about this punishment. Some think it’s too risky because innocent people might be executed. Others believe it’s morally wrong to take a life as punishment. So, whether or not the death penalty should be used is still a big question in the United States.

Recent Developments and Reforms

Significant discussions and reforms have recently concerned Capital Punishment or the death penalty. Some regions and countries have taken steps to address the concerns surrounding this practice. One notable change is the reduction in the number of executions carried out in some places. 

This means that the death penalty is being used less often as punishment. Additionally, a few regions have gone even further by completely banning executions, believing it is not a just or effective way to deal with even the most serious crimes.

Furthermore, there is a growing focus on reviewing old cases where people may have been wrongly sentenced to death, ensuring that no innocent individuals face this ultimate punishment. 


The topic of Capital Punishment, or the death penalty, is a complex and emotional one. Some believe it’s a strong punishment for very bad crimes, while others say it’s wrong and risky. 

It’s a debate that continues, and changes are happening in some places to make it fairer and safer. Whether one supports it or not, it’s essential to remember that how a society punishes serious crimes is a big question, and people are working to find the best answers.


Q1: What is the capital punishment in India?

A1: Capital punishment in India refers to the death penalty, where a person is sentenced to death as a punishment for certain serious crimes.

Q2: Which crime is punishable by death?

A2: In India, capital punishment can be imposed for crimes like murder, acts of terrorism resulting in death, and certain cases of espionage.

Q3: Is capital punishment banned in India?

A3: No, capital punishment is not banned in India. It is still a legal form of punishment for specific crimes.

Q4: How many times capital punishment in India?

A4: The number of executions in India varies from year to year. There is no fixed annual count.

Q5: When was India’s last death penalty?

A5: India’s last execution, as of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021, was in March 2020 when four men involved in the 2012 Delhi gang-rape case were executed.

Q6: What is the longest punishment in India?

A6: Life imprisonment is one of the longest punishments in India, where a person is sentenced to spend their entire life in prison.

Q7: Is the death penalty still in India?

A7: The death penalty is still legal in India for specific crimes.

Q8: How many death penalties in India per year?

A8: The number of death penalties imposed in India varies yearly and depends on the cases and legal proceedings.

Q9: What is the punishment for accidentally killing someone in India?

A9: Accidentally causing someone’s death can lead to legal consequences, depending on the circumstances. It may result in charges like manslaughter or culpable homicide, with varying degrees of punishment.

Q10: Who released the death penalty in India?

A10: The death penalty is part of India’s legal system and has been determined by the Indian government and judiciary.

Subarno Chattarji
Updated: September 4, 2023 — 9:11 am

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